Indian agriculture is the primary source of livelihood for more than two-thirds of the entire Indian population. But the Indian agricultural system before and after independence was not as strong as it has become today. Hence the yield was not enough to match the demand for food with the increasing population. After that, the Green Revolution became a major success story of Indian agriculture in which some modern and new types of farming methods were used.
This was one of the primary reasons due to which the nation often suffered from famine and food shortages before the Green Revolution. And now we are in a situation where we are challenged with the problem of a surplus yield. Today with the advancement of various agricultural technologies/systems that include organic farming, the use of vertical farming, precision farming etc., crop production in India has increased.
Agriculture is considered the backbone of our country, which is likely to contribute to the success of the Indian economy. India is a country with different kinds of environmental conditions in a single year and hence India’s agriculture is entirely made up of many crops, with rice and wheat being the primary food staples. Indian farmers also grow cereals, pulses, tubers, oilseeds, and non-food items like cotton, tea, coffee, rubber. However, it was seen that the presentations of these crops are challenged by various biological and abiotic factors, availability of water, and the growing global population.
Increasing the number of grain yields per unit area is an important solution to resolve the contradiction between consumer demand and world food supply, which is expected to increase by 25% or more by the year 2030.
The concept of “Modern Farming”
The recent strategy of liberalization and globalization has opened new doors for the modernization of agriculture. It’s focused not only on improving agricultural inputs, infrastructure facilities in the rural areas, but also on producing agricultural surpluses for both international and local markets. By the half of the 20th century, the concept of the use of modern agriculture was successful a lot, in meeting the increasing demand for food due to an increase in the world’s population.
The ever-changing environmental conditions have increased the pressure on crops to develop new diseases and pests which can affect the crop yield, more severely. Along with this, because of the dramatic increase in the world population, the area of land under cultivation has reduced day by day. And so it is necessary today to increase crop productivity.
Modern agricultural technologies/systems have led to a monumental rise in the production of major crops such as rice and wheat and a fall in food prices.
This rise in food production has been primarily due to scientific advances and the utilization of new technologies, including the development of new varieties of the crop including molecular breeding techniques, organic farming systems, genetically modified cropping systems, etc.
Due to several challenges such as climatic variations, biotic, and abiotic stress factors during peak crop periods, natural disasters have damaged and deteriorated crop yield levels, when traditional agricultural systems were used. New technologies/systems are utilized by farmers but in some rural areas, the rate of adaptation of new technologies by farmers is very slow due to a lack of awareness among the farmers’ community. Modern techniques such as genetically modified crops, organic farming, vertical farming, polytonal farming, greenhouse farming are creating a new horizon for the use of multi-crop farming.
Modern agricultural techniques help in the reduction of manpower required for agricultural work so that the additional manpower available in the agriculture sector can be utilized in the industry sector to grow the Indian economy.
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